All Projects → andywer → Postguard

andywer / Postguard

Licence: gpl-3.0
🐛 Statically validate Postgres SQL queries in JS / TS code and derive schemas.

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Validate SQL queries in JavaScript and TypeScript code against your schema at build time 🚀

Build status npm version

Locates SQL template strings and schema definitions in your code. Evaluates the queries, matching them against your database schema. Supports type-checking via TypeScript, so you get statically typed SQL queries validated against your database schema 😱😱

Use with squid. It provides SQL tagged template strings, auto-escapes dynamic expressions to prevent SQL injections and comes with some syntactic sugar to write short, explicit SQL queries.

🦄  Validates SQL template strings in code
🚀  Checks SQL queries syntax and semantics
⚡️  Works statically, without additional runtime overhead
⚙️  Built on top of Babel & TypeScript
🛠  Uses libpg_query, the actual Postgres SQL parser



npm install --save-dev postguard

# or using yarn:
yarn add --dev postguard


Run the tool like this:

postguard src/models/*

We can use npm's npx tool to run the locally installed package:

npx postguard src/models/*

Command line options

  $ postguard ./path/to/source/*.ts

  --help        Print this help
  -w, --watch   Watch files and re-evaluate on change


  • Usage - Hands-on examples how to use the tool
  • Validations - List of validations that will be performed


Let's quickly compare the options you got when writing code that uses a relational database.

Our sample use case is updating project rows that are owned by a certain user.

Plain SQL


const { rows } = await database.query(`
  UPDATE projects SET
    last_opened = NOW(),
    open_count = open_count + 1
      SELECT project_id FROM project_members WHERE user_id = $1
  [ userId ]


  • Efficient queries
  • Explicit - No magic, full control
  • Functional stateless data flow, atomic updates


  • Very easy to make mistakes
  • No way of telling if correct unless code is run
  • Can be quite verbose
  • Requires knowledge about SQL & your database
  • No type safety

ORMs (Sequelize, TypeORM, ...)


// (Model definitions not included)

const user = await User.findById(userId)
const projects = await user.getProjects()

const updatedProjects = await Promise.all( project => {
    project.last_opened = new Date(


  • Easy to get started
  • Type-safety
  • Less error-prone than writing raw SQL
  • Requires no SQL knowledge


  • Implicit - Actual database queries barely visible
  • Usually leads to inefficient queries
  • Update operations based on potentially stale local data
  • Virtually limits you to a primitive subset of your database's features

Query builder (Knex.js, Prisma, ...)


// (Model definitions not included)

const usersProjects = await prisma.user({ id: userId }).projects()

const updatedProjects = await Promise.all( =>
      data: {
        last_opened: new Date(,
        open_count: project.open_count + 1
      where: {


  • Explicit - Full control over queries
  • Functional stateless data flow
  • Type-safety


  • Additional abstraction layer with its own API
  • Atomic updates still hardly possible
  • Requires knowledge about both, SQL & your database plus the query builder API

SQL with squid & postguard 🚀


// (Schema definition not included)

const { rows } = await database.query<ProjectRecord>(sql`
  UPDATE projects SET
    last_opened = NOW(),
    open_count = open_count + 1
      SELECT project_id FROM project_members WHERE user_id = ${userId}


  • Explicit - Full control, no implicit magic
  • Fast due to absence of abstraction layers
  • Functional stateless data flow, atomic updates
  • Full query validation at build time
  • Type-safety


  • Requires knowledge about SQL & your database


Set the environment variable DEBUG to postguard:* to enable debug logging. You can also narrow debug logging down by setting DEBUG to postguard:table or postguard:query, for instance.

Questions? Feedback?

Feedback is welcome, as always. Feel free to comment what's on your mind 👉 here.



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